UK first country to legally offer '3-parent' gene therapy
LONDON, United Kingdom (UPDATED) – Britain's fertility regulator on Thursday, December 15, gave the green light for the country to become the first in the world to legally offer "3-parent baby" fertility treatments.
The technique would allow women who carry disease-causing mutations in their mitochondrial genes to give birth to genetically-related children free of mitochondrial disease.
British lawmakers had voted in February to allow the creation of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) babies with DNA from 3 people, but clinics needed to obtain licenses from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) before introducing the mitochondrial gene therapy.
HFEA chair Sally Cheshire called the decision to license the treatment "historic and important" and "a world first".
"I'm sure patients who might be in line for this treatment will be really pleased by what we've decided today," she said, but added: "We will proceed with caution."
An independent panel of experts last month said the practice should be "cautiously adopted" to prevent certain genetic diseases from being passed on to future generations.
Mitochondria are structures in cells which generate vital energy and contain their own set of genes called mDNA which is passed through the mother.
Mitochondrial diseases cause symptoms ranging from poor vision to diabetes and muscle wasting, and health officials estimate around 125 babies are born with the mutations in Britain every year.
But opponents have warned that it paves the way for "designer babies".
The treatment involves the embryo receiving the usual "nuclear" DNA from the mother and father, as well as a small amount of healthy mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) from a female donor.
The review panel recommended its clinical use "in specific circumstances... where inheritance of the disease is likely to cause death or serious disease and where there are no acceptable alternatives."
The first women could receive the treatment as early as March or April, with a pioneering research centre in Newcastle, northeast England, expected to kickstart the program.
"We are delighted by today's decision," said Doug Turnbull, director of the Wellcome Centre for Mitochondrial Research at Newcastle University.
"In Newcastle, we will be aiming to treat up to 25 carefully selected patients a year with the mitochondrial donation technique."
Robert Meadowcroft, CEO of charity Muscular Dystrophy, said the decision gave affected parents "new hope and choice for the first time", but urged caution.
"We recognize this approach is not without some uncertainty, and, in any trial, success cannot be guaranteed," he said.
The first baby conceived using mitochondrial donation was born earlier this year in Mexico, where there are no rules on its use, but Britain is the first to officially authorize it.
The treatment remains controversial in Britain and elsewhere, with religious leaders among its detractors.
The Roman Catholic Church opposes the move, pointing out that it would involve the destruction of human embryos as part of the process, while the Church of England has said ethical concerns "have not been sufficiently explored". – Rappler.com